There is no law that forces you to end your marriage in a certain way. You can end as partners or as adversaries, fighting in court or agreeing in court, breaking the bank or limiting your emotional and financial damage. And at any time, you can change your mind.
Dissolution is cooperative. It is the legal way of agreeing on all issues and moving on. It is completely private and in your control, but for the final judgment which is part of the public court record. What’s involved? First, a written separation agreement that follows Ohio law and spells out your mutual understanding on property, support, and parenting responsibilities. Second, a petition for dissolution, which is your request that the court legally end the marriage in accordance with your separation agreement. As a rule, you go to court only for a formal, brief dissolution hearing about 30 to 90 days after you submit your petition.
Divorce is the alternative when you and your spouse are not on the same page, so to speak, or one of you does not want to end the marriage or participate in resolving issues. When you file for divorce in Ohio you must set forth grounds. There are two no-fault grounds and nine grounds that assign blame. If you file and your spouse does not respond within twenty-eight days of being served with formal legal notification, your divorce will generally be considered uncontested. A final hearing will be set any time after forty-two days have elapsed. In general, divorce means that the partners have issues they have so far been unable to resolve. It does not necessarily mean that you will be antagonists. There are many other possibilities:
Process options. You may choose a collaborative divorce, where both parties and their attorneys sit down to resolve issues together, privately and outside the courtroom. You and your former spouse decide on support, property division, and parenting choices in an atmosphere respectful of everyone’s interests. For problems that resist a collaborative solution, there are different forms of negotiation, professional mediation or arbitration to resolve difficult issues without going to court. For many matters, the least desirable choice is litigation, presenting arguments in court and leaving it up to the judge.
Legal separation is an action that results only in a formal decree of the rights and responsibilities of each spouse while they live apart. It does not dissolve the marriage. A separation agreement, adopted by order of the court, specifies division of debts, assets and parental rights and responsibilities– the same matters involved in a dissolution or divorce. Such a formal separation gives spouses time apart to consider their marriage while keeping in place various benefits that can end if the marriage ends. It also sets a pattern of agreements that are often followed for a divorce settlement, so it is wise to agree on terms that are acceptable in the long run. Some couples seek a planned separation as a more formalized way of working on marriage issues before they think seriously about divorce. (Read more about legal separation).
Annulment is a legal procedure for establishing that a marriage was never valid. The length of the marriage isn’t important. There are seven grounds for an annulment: 1) at least one party was underage; 2) the parties have a close blood relationship; 3) a party was still legally married at the time of the current marriage; 4) one party was unable to consummate the marriage; 5) one spouse lacked the mental capacity to enter into a marriage contract; 6) one person married under duress or by force; 7) one person entered into marriage fraudulently, concealing such things as criminal history, sexually transmitted diseases or impotence.